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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Babyrousa celebensis
Sulawesi babirusa
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Literature Cited

Bowles, D. (1986). Social behaviour and breeding of babirusa. Dodo, Journal of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 23: 86-94.

CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna). 2017. Appendix I, II, and III as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, valid from 4 October 2017. Available online at the CITES website.

Clayton, L., and MacDonald, D.W. (1999). Social organization of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) and their use of salt licks in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Mammalogy80(4): 1147-1157.

Groves, C.P. (1980). Notes on the systematics of Babyrousa (Artiodactyla, Suidae). Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) 55(3): 29-46.

Leus, K. (1994). Foraging behaviour, food selection, and diet digestion of Babyrousa babyrussa (Suidae, Mammalia). PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.

Leus, K., Bowles, D., Bell, J., and MacDonald, A.A. (1992). Behaviour of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) with suggestions for husbandry. Acta Zoologica et Pathologica Antverpiensia 82: 9-27.

Leus, K., Bland, K.P., Dhondt, A.A., and Macdonald, A.A. (1996). Ploughing behaviour of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) suggests a scent marking function. Journal of Zoology 238: 209-219.

Leus, K., Macdonald, A., Burton, J. and Rejeki, I. (2016). Babyrousa celebensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T136446A44142964. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T136446A44142964.en. Downloaded on 20 March 2019.

Macdonald, A.A., Bowles, D., Bell, J., and Leus, K. (1993). Agonistic behavior in captive babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkund 58(1): 18-30.

Meijaard, E., and Groves, C.P. (2002). Upgrading three subspecies of babirusa (Babyrousa spp) to full species level. Asian Wild Pig News 2(2):33-39.

Melisch, R. (1994). Observation of swimming Babirusa Babyrousa babyrussa in Lake Poso, Central Sulawesi. Indonesia Malayan Nature Journal 47(4): 431-432.

Patry, M., Leus, K., and Macdonald, A.A. (1995). Group structure and behaviour of babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) in Northern Sulawesi. Australian Journal of Zoology 43(6): 643-655.

Riley, J. (2002). Current Wildlife Conservation Society research and conservation of Sulawesi's Suids. Asian Wild Pig News 2(2): 26-30.

Tulung B., Umboh J.F., and Pendong A.F. (2013). A study on babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa celebensis) in tropical forest of Northern part of Sulawesi. Scientific Papers. Series D. Animal Science 56: 107-112.

Additional Resources

*Berger, E.M., Leus, K., Vercammen, P., and Schwarzenberger, F. (2006). Faecal steroid metabolites for non-invasive assessment of reproduction in common warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus), red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus) and babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Animal Reproduction Science 91(1-2): 155-171.

*Blouch, R.A. (1995). Conservation and research priorities for threatened suids of South and Southeast Asia. Journal of Mountain Ecology 3: 21-25.

Chaudhuri, M., Carrasaco, E., Kalk, P., and Thau, R.B. (1990) Urinary oestrogen excretion during oestrus and pregnancy in the babirusa. International Zoo Yearbook 29: 188-192.

Clayton, L.M. (1996). Conservation Biology of the Babirusa, Babyrousa babyrussa, in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Oxford.

Conklin, N.L., Dierenfeld, E.S., and MacLaughlin, K.A. (1994). Digestibility and passage of a zoo diet fed to babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Der Zoologische Garten N. F. 6: 357-365.

Leus, K., Goodall, G.P., and Macdonald, A.A. (1999). Anatomy and histology of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) stomach. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences, Série III - Sciences de la Vie 322: 1081-1092.

Leus, K., and Morgan, C.A. (1996). Analysis of diets fed to babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) in captivity with respect to their nutritional requirements. Ibex Journal of Mountain Ecology 3: 41-44.

Leus, K., and Vercammen, P. (1996). Behaviour of a male and female babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa Suidae, Mammalia) during the first five days after their move to a semi-natural enclosure. Der Zoologische Garten N.F. 66: 133-155.

Macdonald, A. A. (1991). Monographie des Hirschebers (Babyrousa babyrussa). Bongo (Berlin) 18: 69-84.

Macdonald, A.A. (2017). Erosion of canine teeth in babirusa (genus Babyrousa). Comptes Rendus Biologies 340(5): 271-278.

*Macdonald, A.A., and Leus, K. (1994). Foraging behaviour, food selection and diet digestion of Babyrousa babyrussa (Suidae, Mammalia). The University of Edinburgh. College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. Royal (Dick) Veterinary School.

Macdonald, A.A., and Leus, K. (1996). Creating a public understanding of the biology of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa) within a caring zoo environment. Ibex Journal of Mountain Ecology 3: 37-40.

Macdonald, A. A., Bell, J., Munro, S. A., Kaspe, L., Harwood Gepak, V., Sasmita, R. and Bowles, D. (1989). Observations on the behaviour and health of captive babirusa. Prosiding Simposium Nasional Penyakit Satwa Liar, Surabaya: 244-253.

*Macdonald, A.A., Leus, K., Florence, A., Clare, J., and Patry, M. (1996). Notes on the behaviour of Sulawesi warty pigs (Sus celebensis) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Malaysian Nature Journal 50: 47-53.

*MacLaughlin, K., Ostro, L.E.T., Koontz, C., and Koontz, F. (2000). The ontogeny of nursing in Babyrousa babyrussa and a comparison with domestic pigs. Zoo Biology 19(4): 253-262.

Melisch, R. (1994). Observation of swimming Babirusa Babyrousa babyrussa in Lake Poso, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Malayan Nature Journal 47(4): 431-432.

*Milner-Gulland, E.J., and Clayton, L. (2002). The trade in babirusas and wild pigs in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecological Economics 42(1-2): 165-183.

Patry, M., and Capois, J. (1989). Pour la premiere fois le Babiroussa a l'etat naturel. Connaissance de la Chase 156: 45-46.

Reinhard, R. and Frädrich, H. (1983). Bemerkungen zur Zucht Hirschebern (Babyrousa babyrussa L.) im Zoo Berlin. Bongo, Berlin 7: 65-70.

Vercammen, P. (1991). Übersicht über die Haltung von Hirscheben (Babirousa babyrussa celebensis L.) im Zoo Antwerpen. Bongo, Berlin 18: 244-249.

Quick Facts Detailed Information References