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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Sus celebensis
Sulawesi warty pig
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Literature Cited

Burton, J. and Macdonald, A.A. (2008). Sus celebensis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1 (accessed 25 Oct 2011). Available online at the IUCN Red List website.

Groves, C.P. and Grubb, P. (1993). The Eurasian Suids (Sus and Babyrousa): Taxonomy and Description. In: Oliver, W.L.R. (1993). Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos: Status Survey and Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Available online at the Pig, Peccary, and Hippo Specialist Group website.

Jamaludin, M., Mustari, A.H., Burton, J.A., and Hernowo, J.B. (2008). Demographic parameters and behaviours of Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis Muller and Schlegel 1843) in Tanjung Peropa Wildlife Reserve, Southeast Sulawesi. Media Konservasi 13(2): 90-93.

Lydekker, R. (1915). Catalogue of the Ungulate Mammals in the British Museum of Natural History, Volume IV. The Order of the Trustees of the British Museum, London.

Macdonald, A.A. (1993). The Sulawesi Warty Pig (Sus celebensis). Pp. 155-160 in: Oliver, W.L.R. (1993). Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos: Status Survey and Action Plan. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Available online at the Pig, Peccary, and Hippo Specialist Group website.

Macdonald, A.A., Leus, K., Florence, A., Clare, J. and Patry, M. (1996). Notes on the behaviour of Sulawesi Warty pigs (Sus celebensis) in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Malaysian Nature Journal 50: 47-53.

Schmidt, C.R. (1990). Pigs. Pp. 20-47 in: Parker, S.P. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals, Volume 5. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Additional Resources

Appelman, F.J. (1955). Über Sus celebensis Müller & Schlegel. Zoologischer Garten 21: 152-156.

Auliya, M. (2003). A reticulated python (Python reticulatus) preys on an adult Sulawesi pig (Sus celebensis). Asian Wild Pig News 3(1): 11-12.

Bell, J. (1987). Nutrition and reproduction of Indonesian wild pigs. (Unpubl.) rep., Edinburgh University: 6 pp.

Blouch, R.A. (1990). Report from the field: Indonesia. Smithsonian Instit. Conserv. and Res. Centre Newsletter 1: 6-8.

*Bosma, A.A., de Haan, N.A., Blouch, R.A. and Macdonald, A.A. (1991). Comparative cytogenetic studies in Sus verrucosus, Sus celebensis and Sus scrofa vittatus (Suidae, Mammalia). Genetica 83: 189-194.

Budiarso, Wilar, A.F., Tulung, B., Kaligis, D. and Kaligis, W.A.A. (1991). The importance of Sulawesi wild pig (Sus celebensis) as a source of meat in North Sulawesi. (Unpubl.) rep, Universitas Sam Ratulangi and World Wide Fund for Nature Indonesia Programme: 19 pp.

*Burton, J.A., and Macdonald, A.A. (2006). The Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis): A status review. Suiform Soundings 6(2): 5-13.

Catibog-Sinha, C. (1985). Depredation of wild pigs (Sus celebensis Sanborn) on shifting cultivation. Sylvatrop, Philippine Forest Research Journal 10: 283-292.

Clayton, L., Keeling, M. and Milner-Gulland, E.J. (1997). Bringing home the bacon: a spatial model of wild pig hunting in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecological Applications 7(2): 642-652.

*Damayanti, C.S., Burton, J.A., Galbusera, P., Muladno and Djuwita, I. (2008). The analysis of genetic variation and population structure of Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) in north and southeast peninsulas of Sulawesi Island. Proceedings of AZWMC 2008, Bogor, Indonesia: 220-221.

*Gippoliti, S. and Amori, G. (2002). Anthropochorous wild mammal taxa and conservation lists. Conservation Biology 16(4): 1162-1164.

*Groves, C. (1981). Ancestors for the Pigs: Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the genus Sus. Tech. Bull. No. 3, Australian National University Press, Canberra: 96 pp.

*Groves, C. (1983). Pigs east of the Wallace Line. J. Soc. Oceanistes 39: 105-119.

*Hardjasasmita, H.S. (1987). Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Suidae (Mammalia) in Indonesia. Scripta Geologica 85: 1-68.

Hooijer, D.A. (1969). Pleistocene vertebrates from Celebes, 8 Sus celebensis Muller & Schlegel, 1845. Beaufortia 16: 215-218.

*Lee, R.J., Gorog, A.J., Dwiyahreni, A., Siwu, S., Riley, J., Alexander, H., Paoli, G.D., and Ramono, W. (2005). Wildlife trade and implications for law enforcement in Indonesia: a case study from North Sulawesi. Biological Conservation 123(4): 477-488.

*Lucchini, V., Meijaard, E., Diong, C.H., Groves, C.P. and Randi, E. (2005). New phylogenetic perspectives among species of South-east Asian wild pig (Sus sp.) based on mtDNA sequences and morphometric data. Journal of Zoology 266(1): 25-35.

Macdonald, A.A., Kneepkens, A.F.L.M. and Bosma, A.A. (1984). Anatomical studies on the female and male reproductive tracts of wild pigs. Pp. 93-104 in: Spitz, F. and Pepin, D. (eds.). Proc. Symp. Int. sur le Sanglier, INRA; Paris (Les Colloques de l'INRA No. 22).

Macdonald, A.A. (1991). Monographe des Celebes-schweines (Sus celebensis). Bongo, Berlin 18: 39-45.

MacKinnon, J. (1981). The distribution and status of wild pigs in Indonesia. (Unpubl.) rep. to IUCN/SSC Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group: 9 pp.

*Milner-Gulland, E.J., and Clayton, L. (2002). The trade in babirusas and wild pigs in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Ecological Economics 42(1-2): 165-183.

National Research Council. (1983). Little-known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. National Academy Press, Washington: 75-79.

O'Brien, T.G. and Kinnaird, M.F. (1996). Changing populations of birds and mammals in North Sulawesi. Oryx 30(2): 150-156.

Oliver, W.L.R. (1984). Introduced and feral pigs. Pp. 87-126 in: Feral Mammals - Problems and Potential. Proc. of the Workshop on Feral Mammals at the IIIrd Int. Theriol. Congr., Helsinki, 1982; I.U.C.N., Gland.

Riley, J. (2002). Current Wildlife Conservation Society research and conservation of Sulawesi's suids. Asian Wild Pig News 2(2): 26-29.

Sanborn, C.C. (1952). Philippine Zoological Expedition 1946-47. Fieldiana: Zoology 33: 89-158.

Setyodiwiryo, K. (1959). Nature protection in Indonesia. Proc. 9th Pacific Science Congress 7: 18-20.

Sinha, C.C.S. (1982). The quality and quantity of wild food plants and the depredation of wild pigs in the Philippines. Dissertation Abstracts International (B) 42(a): 3513.

Sody, H.J.V. (1941). Tweede bijdrage over de voortplantings tijden der Indische zoogdieren. De Nederlandsch-Indische Jager 11: 198-201 & 256-265.

Wiles, P.R., Burton, J.A., Macdonald, A.A. and Mustari, A.H. (2002). Records of Babirusa and warty pigs in SE Sulawesi. Asian Wild Pig News 2(2): 31-32.

*Wu Gui-sheng, Pang Jun-feng, Zhang Ya-ping. (2006). Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of Suidae. Zoological Research 27(2): 197-201.

Quick Facts Detailed Information References