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Ungulates of the World
Species fact sheets
Ungulates account for the vast majority of large herbivores currently on earth. Their influence stretches across nearly every biome, and their indigenous range includes all zoogeographic regions except Antarctica. With human help, ungulates have expanded into nearly every corner of the globe: "Ungulates of the World" indeed! The species list (below) originates from that published by Wilson and Reeder (2005), although several changes and additions have been made to reflect our current understanding of ungulate taxonomy (as per IUCN, 2010). Since species-concepts are flexible, some species recognized by other authors may not be listed here. Detailed fact sheets for individual species can be accessed by clicking on the linked species names.

In 2011, the classification of hoofed mammals received a massive revision,
with over 450 distinct ungulate species recognized.
See the results of Ungulate Taxonomy by Groves and Grubb here!


Did you know?

257 modern ungulate species are presently recognized by the Smithsonian Institution.  At least five of these species have become extinct over the past 300 years at the hands of humans, and many more are on the brink.


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Family Equidae
Equus africanus African wild ass (wild form of the domestic donkey, Equus asinus)
Equus ferus Wild horse (wild form of the domestic horse, Equus caballus)
Equus grevyi Grevy's zebra
Equus hemionus Asiatic wild ass, kulan
Equus kiang Kiang, Tibetan wild ass
Equus quagga Plains zebra
Equus zebra Mountain zebra
Family Tapiridae
Ceratotherium simum White rhinoceros
Diceros bicornis Black rhinoceros
Rhinoceros sondaicus Javan rhinoceros
Rhinoceros unicornis Indian rhinoceros
Order Artiodactyla
Family Camelidae
Camelus ferus Bactrian camel (wild form of the domestic Bactrian camel, Camelus bactrianus)
Camelus dromedarius Dromedary, Arabian camel
Lama guanicoe Guanaco (wild form of the domestic llama, Lama glama)
Vicugna vicugna Vicuña (wild form of the domestic alpaca, Vicugna pacos)
Family Suidae
Phacochoerus aethiopicus Desert warthog
Phacochoerus africanus Common warthog
Family Tayassuidae
Suborder Ruminantia
Family Tragulidae
Family Giraffidae
Giraffa camelopardalis Giraffe
Family Moschidae
Moschus anhuiensis Anhui musk deer
Moschus berezovskii Forest musk deer
Moschus chrysogaster Himalayan musk deer
Moschus cupreus Kashmir musk deer
Moschus fuscus Black musk deer
Moschus leucogaster White-bellied musk deer
Moschus moschiferus Siberian musk deer
Family Cervidae
Subfamily Capreolinae
Alces alces Eurasian elk
Alces americanus American moose
Capreolus capreolus European roe deer
Capreolus pygargus Siberian roe deer
Mazama americana Red brocket
Mazama bororo Bororo, small red brocket
Mazama bricenii Grey dwarf brocket
Mazama chunyi Dwarf brocket
Mazama gouazoubira Brown brocket
Mazama nana Lesser brocket
Mazama nemorivaga Amazonian brown brocket
Mazama pandora Yucatan brown brocket
Mazama rufina Little red brocket
Mazama temama Mexican red brocket
Odocoileus hemionus Mule deer
Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer
Ozotoceros bezoarticus Pampas deer
Pudu mephistophiles Northern pudu
Pudu puda Southern pudu
Subfamily Cervinae
Cervus elaphus Red deer, wapiti, American elk
Cervus nippon Sika, Japanese deer
Dama dama Fallow deer
Dama mesopotamica Persian fallow deer
Muntiacus atherodes Bornean yellow muntjac
Muntiacus crinifrons Black muntjac
Muntiacus feae Fea's muntjac
Muntiacus gongshanensis Gongshan muntjac
Muntiacus montanus Sumatran muntjac
Muntiacus muntjak Red muntjac
Muntiacus puhoatensis Pu Hoat muntjac
Muntiacus putaoensis Leaf deer
Muntiacus reevesi Reeves's muntjac
Muntiacus rooseveltorum Roosevelt's muntjac
Muntiacus truongsonensis Annamite muntjac
Muntiacus vaginalis Northern red muntjac
Muntiacus vuquangensis Giant muntjac
Rusa alfredi Visayan spotted deer
Rusa marianna Philippine sambar
Rusa timorensis Rusa
Rusa unicolor Sambar
Subfamily Hydropotinae
Family Bovidae
Subfamily Aepycerotinae
Subfamily Alcelaphinae
Subfamily Antilopinae
Antidorcas marsupialis Springbok
Eudorcas albonotata Mongalla gazelle
Eudorcas rufifrons Red-fronted gazelle
Eudorcas rufina Red gazelle
Eudorcas thomsonii Thomson's gazelle
Gazella arabica Arabian gazelle
Gazella bennettii Indian gazelle, chinkara
Gazella bilkis Queen of Sheba's gazelle
Gazella cuvieri Cuvier's gazelle
Gazella dorcas Dorcas gazelle
Gazella gazella Chinkara, mountain gazelle
Gazella leptoceros Slender-horned gazelle, rhim
Gazella saudiya Saudi gazelle
Gazella spekei Speke's gazelle
Gazella subgutturosa Goitered gazelle
Madoqua guentheri Guenther's dik-dik
Madoqua kirkii Kirk's dik-dik
Madoqua piacentinii Silver dik-dik
Madoqua saltiana Salt's dik-dik
Ourebia ourebi Oribi
Procapra gutturosa Mongolian gazelle, zeren
Procapra picticaudata Tibetan gazelle, goa
Procapra przewalskii Przewalski's gazelle
Raphicerus campestris Steenbok
Raphicerus melanotis Southern grysbok
Raphicerus sharpei Northern grysbok
Subfamily Bovinae
Bos gaurus Gaur (wild form of the domestic gayal, Bos frontalis)
Bos javanicus Banteng
Bos mutus Wild yak (wild form of the domestic yak, Bos grunniens)
Bos primigenius Aurochs (wild form of domestic cattle, Bos taurus)
Bos sauveli Kouprey
Subfamily Caprinae
Arabitragus jayakari Arabian tahr
Capra aegagrus Wild goat (wild form of the domestic goat, Capra hircus)
Capra caucasica West Caucasian tur
Capra cylindricornis East Caucasian tur
Capra falconeri Markhor
Capra ibex Alpine ibex
Capra nubiana Nubian ibex
Capra pyrenaica Spanish ibex
Capra sibirica Siberian ibex
Capra walie Walia ibex
Capricornis crispus Japanese serow
Capricornis milneedwardsii Chinese serow
Capricornis rubidus Red serow
Capricornis sumatraensis Southern serow
Capricornis swinhoei Formosan serow
Capricornis thar Himalayan serow
Naemorhedus baileyi Red goral
Naemorhedus caudatus Long-tailed goral
Naemorhedus goral Gray goral
Naemorhedus griseus Chinese goral
Ovis ammon Argali sheep
Ovis canadensis Bighorn sheep
Ovis dalli Dall's sheep
Ovis nivicola Snow sheep
Ovis orientalis Urial (wild form of mouflon and domestic sheep, Ovis aries)
Rupicapra pyrenaica Pyrenean chamois, isard
Rupicapra rupicapra Alpine chamois
Subfamily Cephalophinae
Subfamily Hippotraginae
Hippotragus equinus Roan antelope
Hippotragus leucophaeus Blue buck, blaubok
Hippotragus niger Sable antelope
Subfamily Reduncinae
Literature Cited

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources). 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. Available online at the IUCN Redlist website.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder [editors]. 2005.  Mammal Species of the World (3rd Edition).  Johns Hopkins University Press, 2,142 pp. Available online at the Mammal Species of the World website.