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An Ultimate Ungulate Fact Sheet
Sus oliveri
Mindoro warty pig
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Common name:
Scientific name:
Other names:
Mindoro warty pig
Sus oliveri
Oliver's warty pig, Baboy Damo, Beyek, Sanglier de Mindoro, Mindoro pustelschwein

The Mindoro warty pig was first described as a subspecies of Philippine warty pig (Sus philippensis) in 1997 based on skull measurements from three specimens and examination of a single mounted head. It was reclassified as a separate species in 2001, based on the same small number of specimens. A single published karyotype, with 2n=38 chromosomes, is from a female specimen reportedly from Mindoro. This karyotype allies the Mindoro warty pig with the Palawan bearded pig (Sus ahoenobarbus), however, this species physically resembles the Philippine warty pig (Sus philippensis) and the validity of the source location has been questioned. The species is named after William Oliver, the former Chair of the IUCN Pigs and Peccaries Specialist Group and a key figure in the conservation of Philippine wildlife.

Physical Characteristics

The Mindoro warty pig is an enigmatic species. No whole specimens have ever been scientifically studied, and few live animals have ever been photographed. Based on limited skull measurements, the species is similar in size to the Philippine warty pig (Sus philippensis) and Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons). The overall coloration of this pig is dark brown or black. Like other warty pig species from the Philippines, males develop a mane of elongated hair (black, sometimes mixed with pale hairs) that extends from the top of the head to at least the shoulders. Based on camera trap images, females have a pale band across the bridge of the rostrum (approximately one third of the way between the eyes and snout) and a tuft of pale hair on the angle of the jaw. These features are less conspicuous in males. Male Mondoro warty pigs have visible tusks and develop a pair of protuberances ("warts") on their muzzle, midway between the eyes and the snout; additional growths on the angle of the jaw are said to be less well-developed.

Reproduction and Development

Nothing specifically known. Presumably similar to the Philippine warty pig (Sus philippensis). Infants are brown and marked with longitudinal stripes.

Ecology and Behavior

Little is known about the Mindoro warty pig. Most sightings (direct and indirect) occur in primary and secondary forest and neighboring grasslands. The species appears to be cathemeral (active day and night); one individual was observed using a mud wallow in savanna habitat at midday. These pigs will forage in upland agricultural areas, particularly for root crops such as sweet potato.
Family group: Solitary or in small family groups.
Diet: Presumed to feed on roots and tubers, fallen fruit, and invertebrates, similar to the Philippine warty pig (Sus philippensis).

Habitat and Distribution

This species is endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines. Although formerly found across most of the island, it is now largely restricted to the forests of the central and north-western highlands. Although found at elevations between 240 and 1,700 m above sea level, the species is more frequently sighted above 800 m. The approximate range is depicted in the map below.

Range Map
(after Schütz, 2016)

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Vulnerable (2016).
CITES Listing: Not listed (2021).
Threats: Habitat loss, overhunting, and hybridization with domestic swine.

There are no estimates for how many Mindoro warty pigs survive in the wild. The species was formerly common and widespread across Mindoro, but habitat loss has created fragmented populations which, on the basis of encounter rates, are declining. This species is a traditional source of meat for local communities.

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